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Nepal

Download the GAGE Nepal overview

 

Our research: In Nepal, we are following approximately 1,000 adolescent girls in Nuwakot, Tanahun and Morang districts.

The context: Nepal is a small, mountainous country situated between China and India. One of the world’s poorest countries, and still recovering from a devastating earthquake in 2015, about one-quarter of its citizens are adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19.1

Education and learning: Nepali girls are now more likely than boys to be enrolled in both primary and secondary school. However, boys are more likely to complete secondary school and pass the school leaving exam than girls.2 This is driven by parents’ preference for – and greater investment in – sons. Boys are more likely to be sent to higher-quality private schools and are given more time to do homework.3

Bodily autonomy, integrity and freedom from violence: Child marriage has been declining rapidly in recent years, but 40% of young women between the ages of 20 and 24 were married before the age of 18.4 While historically these child marriages were arranged by parents, in some regions of Nepal child-driven child marriages are becoming more common. Research with adult women has found that sexual harassment and gender-based violence are extremely common – but little is known about girls’ experiences.5

Health, nutrition, and sexual and reproductive health: Taboos surrounding sexuality in general – and girls’ sexuality in particular – are strong in Nepal. Adolescents have little access to the comprehensive sex education that would help them understand puberty before they experience it 6 and girls face a variety of restrictions related to menstruation (e.g. in some regions of Nepal girls suffer from chaupadi where they are confined to separate rooms in their homes – or even huts and animal sheds – while they are menstruating).7 Adolescent girls’ access to contraception is also limited, even after marriage, due to a need to prove fertility.

Psychosocial well-being: Nepali girls tend to have more limited mobility and smaller social networks than their male peers.8 Girls are more likely to be sad and depressed than boys, probably because social norms limit their control over their own lives.9

Voice and agency: Nepali parents’ preference for sons limits girls’ lives from birth. Many have little opportunity to express their opinions or make decisions in their childhood homes, their marital homes, their schools or their communities.10 Married girls are often silenced not only by their husbands, but also by their mothers-in-law.11

Economic empowerment: From childhood, girls work more than boys. Among younger adolescents (aged 12–14), 18% of girls work more than 14 hours a week (compared to 12% for boys) and 10% work more than 28 hours a week (compared to 3% for boys).12 Among those aged 15–17, 64% of girls work less than 43 hours each week and 3% work more than that amount (versus 58.5% and 2% for boys).13 Girls and young women have limited access to financial decision-making and are largely excluded from economic empowerment programmes, which tend to favour either boys or older women.

The evidence base: Our Evidence Mappings found that the literature on Nepali adolescent girls’ capabilities covers a range of areas, with the greatest evidence on education, child marriage and physical health – and the gender norms that shape them.14 However, most of what we know focuses only on older girls, and sometimes only older girls who are married.15

Related publications

Reports
20.09.21
The effects of covid-19 on the lives of adolescent girls and young women in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Across GAGE capabilities
Nepal
Read more
20.09.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Reports | Nepal
The effects of covid-19 on the lives of adolescent girls and young women in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Read more
Journal articles
31.08.21
Changing Patterns of Commercial Sex Work Amongst Adolescent Girls in Nepal: The Role of Technology
Across GAGE capabilities
Nepal
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31.08.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Journal articles | Nepal
Changing Patterns of Commercial Sex Work Amongst Adolescent Girls in Nepal: The Role of Technology
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
30.06.21
Capturing adolescents’ agency, voice and confidence through innovative research tools
Voice and agency
Nepal
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30.06.21 | Voice and agency | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Capturing adolescents’ agency, voice and confidence through innovative research tools
Read more
Book chapters
16.06.21
Finding the Hard to Reach: A Mixed Methods Approach to Including Adolescents with Disabilities in Survey Research
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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16.06.21 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Book chapters | Global
Finding the Hard to Reach: A Mixed Methods Approach to Including Adolescents with Disabilities in Survey Research
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Book chapters
10.06.21
Adolescents in Humanitarian Crisis
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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10.06.21 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Book chapters | Global
Adolescents in Humanitarian Crisis
Read more
Reports
08.06.21
Effective policies and programming to promote adolescent well-being: Lessons from the background papers
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
08.06.21 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Global
Effective policies and programming to promote adolescent well-being: Lessons from the background papers
Read more
Reports
19.05.21
Child Marriage in Humanitarian Crises: Girls and Parents Speak Out on Risk and Protective Factors, Decision-Making, and Solutions
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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19.05.21 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Bangladesh
Child Marriage in Humanitarian Crises: Girls and Parents Speak Out on Risk and Protective Factors, Decision-Making, and Solutions
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Book chapters
25.02.21
Capturing the complexities of adolescent transitions through a mixed methods longitudinal research design
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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25.02.21 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Book chapters | Global
Capturing the complexities of adolescent transitions through a mixed methods longitudinal research design
Read more
Journal articles
13.12.20
Challenging power dynamics and eliciting marginalized adolescent voices through qualitative methods
Voice and agency
Global
Read more
13.12.20 | Voice and agency | Journal articles | Global
Challenging power dynamics and eliciting marginalized adolescent voices through qualitative methods
Read more
Book chapters
10.12.20
Ensuring no voices are left behind: the use of digital storytelling and diary-writing in times of crisis
Psychosocial well-being
Global
Read more
10.12.20 | Psychosocial well-being | Book chapters | Global
Ensuring no voices are left behind: the use of digital storytelling and diary-writing in times of crisis
Read more
Reports
10.11.20
The gendered experiences of adolescent girls working in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
10.11.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Nepal
The gendered experiences of adolescent girls working in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
10.11.20
Use of digital technology among adolescents in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
10.11.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Use of digital technology among adolescents in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Read more
Method tools and guides
20.10.20
GAGE Nepal: overview
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
20.10.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Nepal
GAGE Nepal: overview
Read more
Method tools and guides
11.08.20
Life skills for adolescent girls in the COVID-19 pandemic
Education and learning
Global
Read more
11.08.20 | Education and learning | Method tools and guides | Global
Life skills for adolescent girls in the COVID-19 pandemic
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
29.07.20
Adolescent girls’ experiences of cross-border and international migration in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Economic empowerment
Nepal
Read more
29.07.20 | Economic empowerment | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Adolescent girls’ experiences of cross-border and international migration in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Read more
Journal articles
08.07.20
Development and validation of the LoVI: the Laws on Violence against women and girls Index
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
08.07.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Journal articles | Global
Development and validation of the LoVI: the Laws on Violence against women and girls Index
Read more
Journal articles
29.06.20
Creation of the gender-equitable school index for secondary schools using principal components analysis
Education and learning
Nepal
Read more
29.06.20 | Education and learning | Journal articles | Nepal
Creation of the gender-equitable school index for secondary schools using principal components analysis
Read more
Journal articles
25.06.20
How far do parenting programmes help change norms underpinning violence against adolescents? Evidence from low and middle-income countries
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
25.06.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Journal articles | Global
How far do parenting programmes help change norms underpinning violence against adolescents? Evidence from low and middle-income countries
Read more
Method tools and guides
11.06.20
Covid-19 phone survey (round 1)
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
11.06.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
Covid-19 phone survey (round 1)
Read more
Method tools and guides
11.06.20
GAGE virtual research toolkit: qualitative research with young people on their covid-19 experiences
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
11.06.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
GAGE virtual research toolkit: qualitative research with young people on their covid-19 experiences
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Method tools and guides
03.06.20
GAGE bibliography
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
03.06.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
GAGE bibliography
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
25.03.20
A tale of contradictions: understanding the impact of social norms on Nepali men and boys
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
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25.03.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
A tale of contradictions: understanding the impact of social norms on Nepali men and boys
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
15.01.20
Positioning GAGE evidence on masculinites
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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15.01.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
Positioning GAGE evidence on masculinites
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Reports
07.01.20
GAGE Conceptual Framework: Second Edition
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
07.01.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Global
GAGE Conceptual Framework: Second Edition
Read more
Reports
07.01.20
The invisibility of adolescents within the SDGs
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
07.01.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Global
The invisibility of adolescents within the SDGs
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
06.01.20
What are the impacts of parenting programming on adolescents?
Psychosocial well-being
Global
Read more
06.01.20 | Psychosocial well-being | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
What are the impacts of parenting programming on adolescents?
Read more
Method tools and guides
22.12.19
Qualitative research toolkit to explore child marriage dynamics and how to fast-track prevention
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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22.12.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
Qualitative research toolkit to explore child marriage dynamics and how to fast-track prevention
Read more
Method tools and guides
22.12.19
Qualitative research toolkit: GAGE’s approach to researching with adolescents
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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22.12.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
Qualitative research toolkit: GAGE’s approach to researching with adolescents
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
21.11.19
Intergenerational capabilities development in mothers and adolescent daughters in Nepal
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
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21.11.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Intergenerational capabilities development in mothers and adolescent daughters in Nepal
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
20.11.19
A gender-equitable school index for secondary schools in Nepal and beyond
Education and learning
Nepal
Read more
20.11.19 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
A gender-equitable school index for secondary schools in Nepal and beyond
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
20.10.19
The invisibility of adolescents within the SDGs
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
20.10.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
The invisibility of adolescents within the SDGs
Read more
Journal articles
02.10.19
Does non-formal education have lasting effects?
Education and learning
Global
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02.10.19 | Education and learning | Journal articles | Global
Does non-formal education have lasting effects?
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
01.04.19
Social protection and adolescent capabilities
Economic empowerment
Global
Read more
01.04.19 | Economic empowerment | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Social protection and adolescent capabilities
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
14.03.19
Gender and age-responsive social protection: the potential of cash transfers to advance adolescent rights and capabilities
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
14.03.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Gender and age-responsive social protection: the potential of cash transfers to advance adolescent rights and capabilities
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
06.03.19
Achieving social protection for all adolescents: how can a gender norms lens support more effective programming?
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
06.03.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Achieving social protection for all adolescents: how can a gender norms lens support more effective programming?
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
30.12.18
Programming to promote gender-equitable masculinities among adolescent boys
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
30.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Programming to promote gender-equitable masculinities among adolescent boys
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
30.12.18
Programming with adolescent boys to promote gender-equitable masculinities: A rigorous review
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
30.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
Programming with adolescent boys to promote gender-equitable masculinities: A rigorous review
Read more
Method tools and guides
16.12.18
GAGE research design, sample and methodology
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
16.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
GAGE research design, sample and methodology
Read more
Method tools and guides
16.12.18
GAGE baseline qualitative research tools
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
16.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Method tools and guides | Global
GAGE baseline qualitative research tools
Read more
Journal articles
12.12.18
Puberty and menstruation knowledge among young adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review
Sexual reproductive health and nutrition
Global
Read more
12.12.18 | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Journal articles | Global
Puberty and menstruation knowledge among young adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
12.12.18
Young adolescent girls' knowledge of menstruation and puberty: a rapid evidence review
Sexual reproductive health and nutrition
Global
Read more
12.12.18 | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
Young adolescent girls' knowledge of menstruation and puberty: a rapid evidence review
Read more
Reports
10.12.18
Violence against adolescent girls: trends and lessons for East Africa
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
10.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Global
Violence against adolescent girls: trends and lessons for East Africa
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
10.12.18
Violence against adolescent girls: trends and lessons for East Africa
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
10.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Violence against adolescent girls: trends and lessons for East Africa
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
10.12.18
Policy and legal analysis notes: a review of the National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy in Nepal
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
10.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Policy and legal analysis notes: a review of the National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy in Nepal
Read more
Reports
03.12.18
Gendered experiences of adolescents: baseline findings from World Vision's Rupantaram adolescent lifeskills curriculum
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
03.12.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Nepal
Gendered experiences of adolescents: baseline findings from World Vision's Rupantaram adolescent lifeskills curriculum
Read more
Reports
02.12.18
Supporting girls' education: emerging baseline findings from an evaluation of 'Room to Read' in Nepal
Education and learning
Nepal
Read more
02.12.18 | Education and learning | Reports | Nepal
Supporting girls' education: emerging baseline findings from an evaluation of 'Room to Read' in Nepal
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
24.10.18
Interventions promoting adolescent girls' economic capabilities: what works? A rapid evidence review
Economic empowerment
Global
Read more
24.10.18 | Economic empowerment | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
Interventions promoting adolescent girls' economic capabilities: what works? A rapid evidence review
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
08.09.18
Gender, livelihood capabilities and women's economic empowerment: reviewing evidence over the life course
Economic empowerment
Global
Read more
08.09.18 | Economic empowerment | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
Gender, livelihood capabilities and women's economic empowerment: reviewing evidence over the life course
Read more
Reports
23.08.18
The devil is in the detail: why a gender- and adolescent-specific lens is essential to accelerate progress in eradicating child exploitation
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
23.08.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Global
The devil is in the detail: why a gender- and adolescent-specific lens is essential to accelerate progress in eradicating child exploitation
Read more
Reports
29.07.18
Adolescents with disabilities: enhancing resilience and delivering inclusive development
Education and learning
Global
Read more
29.07.18 | Education and learning | Reports | Global
Adolescents with disabilities: enhancing resilience and delivering inclusive development
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
24.06.18
Accelerating adolescent girls' education and empowerment: a call for action to the G7
Education and learning
Global
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24.06.18 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Accelerating adolescent girls' education and empowerment: a call for action to the G7
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
24.06.18
GAGE on: adolescence and gender norms
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
24.06.18 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
GAGE on: adolescence and gender norms
Read more
Journal articles
18.04.18
Instrumentalising the digital: adolescents’ engagement with ICTs in low- and middle-income countries
Voice and agency
Global
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18.04.18 | Voice and agency | Journal articles | Global
Instrumentalising the digital: adolescents’ engagement with ICTs in low- and middle-income countries
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
21.12.17
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: a synopsis of the evidence
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
21.12.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Nepal
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: a synopsis of the evidence
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
21.12.17
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence on programme effectiveness
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
21.12.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Nepal
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence on programme effectiveness
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
21.12.17
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
21.12.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Nepal
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
18.12.17
Do adolescent girls benefit from social enterprises?
Economic empowerment
Global
Read more
18.12.17 | Economic empowerment | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
Do adolescent girls benefit from social enterprises?
Read more
Reports
10.10.17
Exploring Nepali adolescents' gendered experiences and perspectives
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Nepal
Read more
10.10.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Nepal
Exploring Nepali adolescents' gendered experiences and perspectives
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
19.09.17
Girls' clubs and life skills programmes: positive potential, unanswered questions
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
19.09.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Girls' clubs and life skills programmes: positive potential, unanswered questions
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
19.09.17
GAGE Rigorous Review: Girls' clubs, life skills programmes and girls' well-being outcomes
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
Read more
19.09.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Global
GAGE Rigorous Review: Girls' clubs, life skills programmes and girls' well-being outcomes
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
25.07.17
Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence overview
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Global
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25.07.17 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence overview
Read more
Policy briefs and policy notes
19.07.17
Family planning: the adolescent imperative
Sexual reproductive health and nutrition
Global
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19.07.17 | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Policy briefs and policy notes | Global
Family planning: the adolescent imperative
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