We only use your email address to send you the newsletter and to see how many people are opening our emails. A full privacy policy can be viewed here. You can change your mind at any time and update your preferences or unsubscribe.

An adolescent girl from Gaza. Photo: Rebecca Reid/Overseas Development Institute

Identifying latent classes of empowerment among early adolescent girls and the factors that cultivate them: Evidence from a community-based skills training program

22.03.22 | Bangladesh

Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Economic empowerment | Education | Education and learning | Lifeskills | Psychosocial well-being | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Voice and agency

Authors

Christina Misunas and Sajeda Amin

Empowering girls is an important goal in development but remains difficult to measure.  This project develops survey-based empowerment measures that can be attributed to skill-building programs. The data come from the BALIKA project, a randomized controlled study designed to evaluate three skills programs among early adolescent girls in Bangladesh. We classified respondents at baseline and endline using latent class analysis according to empowerment constructs. Girls’ wealth, marital status, religion, and parents’ level of education predicted empowered responses but changed due to the program. Before the program wealthy girls gave more empowered answers but there were no wealth differences in empowerment after the program. Girls who received gender awareness training and tutoring support were significantly more likely to be empowered but not if they got livelihoods training. We conclude the program empowered girls in general and more if disadvantaged, thus reducing class differences. 

Suggested citation

Misunas, C. and Amin, S. (2022) ‘Identifying latent classes of empowerment among early adolescent girls and the factors that cultivate them: Evidence from a community-based skills training program’ Journal of Adolescence 94(2): 148–165


Related publications

Method tools and guides
24.06.22
Bangladesh Chittagong and Sylhet Impact Evaluation Baseline (2020)
Across GAGE capabilities
Bangladesh
Read more
24.06.22 | Across GAGE capabilities | Method tools and guides | Bangladesh
Bangladesh Chittagong and Sylhet Impact Evaluation Baseline (2020)
Read more
Method tools and guides
24.06.22
Bangladesh Chittagong and Sylhet Cross Section (2018)
Across GAGE capabilities
Bangladesh
Read more
24.06.22 | Across GAGE capabilities | Method tools and guides | Bangladesh
Bangladesh Chittagong and Sylhet Cross Section (2018)
Read more
Method tools and guides
24.06.22
Cox's Bazar Panel Survey Baseline (2019)
Across GAGE capabilities
Bangladesh
Read more
24.06.22 | Across GAGE capabilities | Method tools and guides | Bangladesh
Cox's Bazar Panel Survey Baseline (2019)
Read more