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Nepal

Download the GAGE Nepal overview

 

Our research: In Nepal, we are following approximately 1,000 adolescent girls in Nuwakot, Tanahun and Morang districts.

The context: Nepal is a small, mountainous country situated between China and India. One of the world’s poorest countries, and still recovering from a devastating earthquake in 2015, about one-quarter of its citizens are adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19.1

Education and learning: Nepali girls are now more likely than boys to be enrolled in both primary and secondary school. However, boys are more likely to complete secondary school and pass the school leaving exam than girls.2 This is driven by parents’ preference for – and greater investment in – sons. Boys are more likely to be sent to higher-quality private schools and are given more time to do homework.3

Bodily autonomy, integrity and freedom from violence: Child marriage has been declining rapidly in recent years, but 40% of young women between the ages of 20 and 24 were married before the age of 18.4 While historically these child marriages were arranged by parents, in some regions of Nepal child-driven child marriages are becoming more common. Research with adult women has found that sexual harassment and gender-based violence are extremely common – but little is known about girls’ experiences.5

Health, nutrition, and sexual and reproductive health: Taboos surrounding sexuality in general – and girls’ sexuality in particular – are strong in Nepal. Adolescents have little access to the comprehensive sex education that would help them understand puberty before they experience it 6 and girls face a variety of restrictions related to menstruation (e.g. in some regions of Nepal girls suffer from chaupadi where they are confined to separate rooms in their homes – or even huts and animal sheds – while they are menstruating).7 Adolescent girls’ access to contraception is also limited, even after marriage, due to a need to prove fertility.

Psychosocial well-being: Nepali girls tend to have more limited mobility and smaller social networks than their male peers.8 Girls are more likely to be sad and depressed than boys, probably because social norms limit their control over their own lives.9

Voice and agency: Nepali parents’ preference for sons limits girls’ lives from birth. Many have little opportunity to express their opinions or make decisions in their childhood homes, their marital homes, their schools or their communities.10 Married girls are often silenced not only by their husbands, but also by their mothers-in-law.11

Economic empowerment: From childhood, girls work more than boys. Among younger adolescents (aged 12–14), 18% of girls work more than 14 hours a week (compared to 12% for boys) and 10% work more than 28 hours a week (compared to 3% for boys).12 Among those aged 15–17, 64% of girls work less than 43 hours each week and 3% work more than that amount (versus 58.5% and 2% for boys).13 Girls and young women have limited access to financial decision-making and are largely excluded from economic empowerment programmes, which tend to favour either boys or older women.

The evidence base: Our Evidence Mappings found that the literature on Nepali adolescent girls’ capabilities covers a range of areas, with the greatest evidence on education, child marriage and physical health – and the gender norms that shape them.14 However, most of what we know focuses only on older girls, and sometimes only older girls who are married.15

Related publications

Reports
19.10.21
Adolescents in protracted displacement: exploring risks of age- and gender-based violence among Palestine refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and the State of Palestine
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Jordan | Lebanon
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Adolescents in protracted displacement: exploring risks of age- and gender-based violence among Palestine refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and the State of Palestine
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20.09.21
The effects of covid-19 on the lives of adolescent girls and young women in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Across GAGE capabilities
Nepal
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20.09.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Reports | Nepal
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10.09.21
‘I Wish Someone Would Ask Me Questions’: The Unheard Voices of Adolescents with Disabilities in Jordan
Education and learning
Jordan
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03.09.21
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Across GAGE capabilities
Jordan
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03.09.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Journal articles | Jordan
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31.08.21
Changing Patterns of Commercial Sex Work Amongst Adolescent Girls in Nepal: The Role of Technology
Across GAGE capabilities
Nepal
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31.08.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Journal articles | Nepal
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19.08.21
Living with the Covid-19 pandemic: adolescent experiences in Jordan
Across GAGE capabilities
Jordan
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19.08.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Reports | Jordan
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29.07.21
‘No One Should Be Terrified Like I Was!’ Exploring Drivers and Impacts of Child Marriage in Protracted Crises Among Palestinian and Syrian Refugees
Across GAGE capabilities
Jordan | Palestine
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29.07.21 | Across GAGE capabilities | Journal articles | Jordan
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12.07.21
How to maximise the impacts of cash transfers for vulnerable adolescents in Jordan
Education and learning
Jordan
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12.07.21 | Education and learning | Reports | Jordan
How to maximise the impacts of cash transfers for vulnerable adolescents in Jordan
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Policy briefs and policy notes
30.06.21
Capturing adolescents’ agency, voice and confidence through innovative research tools
Voice and agency
Nepal
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30.06.21 | Voice and agency | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
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08.06.21
Adolescent well-being in the time of covid-19
Education and learning
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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Reports
19.05.21
Child Marriage in Humanitarian Crises: Girls and Parents Speak Out on Risk and Protective Factors, Decision-Making, and Solutions
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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19.05.21 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Bangladesh
Child Marriage in Humanitarian Crises: Girls and Parents Speak Out on Risk and Protective Factors, Decision-Making, and Solutions
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Reports
08.04.21
‘Some got married, others don’t want to attend school as they are involved in income-generation’: adolescent experiences following covid-19 lockdowns in low- and middle-income countries
Education and learning
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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08.04.21 | Education and learning | Reports | Bangladesh
‘Some got married, others don’t want to attend school as they are involved in income-generation’: adolescent experiences following covid-19 lockdowns in low- and middle-income countries
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Policy briefs and policy notes
30.03.21
Empowering adolescents through an integrated programming approach: exploring the effects of UNICEF’s Makani programme on Dom adolescents’ well-being in Jordan
Education and learning
Jordan
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30.03.21 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
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Reports
14.03.21
Exploring adolescent capabilities among the marginalised Dom community in Jordan
Education and learning
Jordan
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14.03.21 | Education and learning | Reports | Jordan
Exploring adolescent capabilities among the marginalised Dom community in Jordan
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Journal articles
03.02.21
Human rights education in humanitarian settings: opportunities and challenges
Education and learning
Bangladesh | Jordan
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03.02.21 | Education and learning | Journal articles | Bangladesh
Human rights education in humanitarian settings: opportunities and challenges
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Method tools and guides
18.12.20
Covid-19 phone survey (round 2) in Jordan and Palestine
Jordan | Palestine
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18.12.20 | Method tools and guides | Jordan
Covid-19 phone survey (round 2) in Jordan and Palestine
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Reports
17.12.20
Through their eyes: exploring the complex drivers of child marriage in humanitarian contexts
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Bangladesh | Jordan
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17.12.20 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Reports | Bangladesh
Through their eyes: exploring the complex drivers of child marriage in humanitarian contexts
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Reports
11.12.20
‘The first thing that I fear for my future is lack of rain and drought’: climate change and its impacts on adolescent capabilities in low- and middle-income countries
Education and learning
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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11.12.20 | Education and learning | Reports | Bangladesh
‘The first thing that I fear for my future is lack of rain and drought’: climate change and its impacts on adolescent capabilities in low- and middle-income countries
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Journal articles
10.12.20
Social isolation and disrupted privacy: impacts of covid-19 on adolescent girls in humanitarian contexts
Voice and agency
Bangladesh | Jordan
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10.12.20 | Voice and agency | Journal articles | Bangladesh
Social isolation and disrupted privacy: impacts of covid-19 on adolescent girls in humanitarian contexts
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Reports
10.11.20
The gendered experiences of adolescent girls working in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Sexual reproductive health and nutrition
Nepal
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10.11.20 | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Reports | Nepal
The gendered experiences of adolescent girls working in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
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Policy briefs and policy notes
10.11.20
Use of digital technology among adolescents in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Sexual reproductive health and nutrition
Nepal
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10.11.20 | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Use of digital technology among adolescents in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
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Book chapters
27.10.20
Interrogating the potential of a “cash plus” approach to tackle multidimensional vulnerability in humanitarian contexts: the case of Syrian refugees in Jordan
Economic empowerment
Jordan
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27.10.20 | Economic empowerment | Book chapters | Jordan
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Method tools and guides
20.10.20
GAGE Nepal: overview
Education and learning
Nepal
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20.10.20 | Education and learning | Method tools and guides | Nepal
GAGE Nepal: overview
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Policy briefs and policy notes
28.09.20
Adolescents’ experiences of covid-19 and the public health response in Jordan
Education and learning
Jordan
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28.09.20 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
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Reports
12.08.20
‘I have nothing to feed my family…’: covid-19 risk pathways for adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries
Economic empowerment
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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12.08.20 | Economic empowerment | Reports | Bangladesh
‘I have nothing to feed my family…’: covid-19 risk pathways for adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries
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Policy briefs and policy notes
29.07.20
Adolescent girls’ experiences of cross-border and international migration in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
Economic empowerment
Nepal
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29.07.20 | Economic empowerment | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Adolescent girls’ experiences of cross-border and international migration in the adult entertainment sector in Nepal
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Journal articles
29.06.20
Creation of the gender-equitable school index for secondary schools using principal components analysis
Education and learning
Nepal
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29.06.20 | Education and learning | Journal articles | Nepal
Creation of the gender-equitable school index for secondary schools using principal components analysis
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Method tools and guides
05.06.20
GAGE Jordan: overview
Education and learning
Jordan
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05.06.20 | Education and learning | Method tools and guides | Jordan
GAGE Jordan: overview
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Policy briefs and policy notes
05.05.20
Exploring the impacts of covid-19 on adolescents in Jordan’s refugee camps and host communities
Education and learning
Jordan
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05.05.20 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Exploring the impacts of covid-19 on adolescents in Jordan’s refugee camps and host communities
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Policy briefs and policy notes
25.03.20
A tale of contradictions: understanding the impact of social norms on Nepali men and boys
Education and learning
Nepal
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25.03.20 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
A tale of contradictions: understanding the impact of social norms on Nepali men and boys
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Method tools and guides
02.02.20
Jordan baseline survey 2017/18
Education and learning
Jordan
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02.02.20 | Education and learning | Method tools and guides | Jordan
Jordan baseline survey 2017/18
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Journal articles
30.11.19
‘Even though I am blind, I am still human!’: the neglect of adolescents with disabilities’ human rights in conflict-affected contexts
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Jordan | Palestine
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30.11.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Journal articles | Jordan
‘Even though I am blind, I am still human!’: the neglect of adolescents with disabilities’ human rights in conflict-affected contexts
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Policy briefs and policy notes
21.11.19
Intergenerational capabilities development in mothers and adolescent daughters in Nepal
Education and learning
Nepal
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21.11.19 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Intergenerational capabilities development in mothers and adolescent daughters in Nepal
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Policy briefs and policy notes
20.11.19
A gender-equitable school index for secondary schools in Nepal and beyond
Education and learning
Nepal
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20.11.19 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
A gender-equitable school index for secondary schools in Nepal and beyond
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Reports
14.10.19
Adolescent well-being in Jordan: exploring gendered capabilities, contexts and change strategies
Education and learning
Jordan
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14.10.19 | Education and learning | Reports | Jordan
Adolescent well-being in Jordan: exploring gendered capabilities, contexts and change strategies
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Adolescents in Jordan: freedom from age- and gender-based violence
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Adolescents in Jordan: freedom from age- and gender-based violence
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Adolescents in Jordan: psychosocial well-being
Psychosocial well-being
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Psychosocial well-being | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Adolescents in Jordan: psychosocial well-being
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Adolescents in Jordan: voice, agency, mobility and social cohesion
Voice and agency
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Voice and agency | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Adolescents in Jordan: voice, agency, mobility and social cohesion
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Adolescents in Jordan: health, nutrition and WASH
Sexual reproductive health and nutrition
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Sexual reproductive health and nutrition | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Adolescents in Jordan: health, nutrition and WASH
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Adolescents in Jordan: education and learning
Education and learning
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Adolescents in Jordan: education and learning
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Adolescents in Jordan: economic empowerment and social protection
Economic empowerment
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Economic empowerment | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Adolescents in Jordan: economic empowerment and social protection
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Leave no one behind: adolescents with disabilities in Jordan
Education and learning
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Leave no one behind: adolescents with disabilities in Jordan
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Policy briefs and policy notes
22.07.19
Leave no one behind: married girls in Jordan
Bodily integrity and freedom from violence
Jordan
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22.07.19 | Bodily integrity and freedom from violence | Policy briefs and policy notes | Jordan
Leave no one behind: married girls in Jordan
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Policy briefs and policy notes
02.06.19
Leave no adolescent behind: the gender- and age-specific vulnerabilities of adolescent refugees and IDPs
Education and learning
Ethiopia | Rwanda
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02.06.19 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Ethiopia
Leave no adolescent behind: the gender- and age-specific vulnerabilities of adolescent refugees and IDPs
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Evidence reviews and evidence digests
30.12.18
Why a ‘cash plus’ approach is critical to better support children and adolescents with disabilities: evidence from Jordan and Palestine
Economic empowerment
Jordan | Palestine
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30.12.18 | Economic empowerment | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Jordan
Why a ‘cash plus’ approach is critical to better support children and adolescents with disabilities: evidence from Jordan and Palestine
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Policy briefs and policy notes
10.12.18
Policy and legal analysis notes: a review of the National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy in Nepal
Education and learning
Nepal
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10.12.18 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Nepal
Policy and legal analysis notes: a review of the National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy in Nepal
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Evidence reviews and evidence digests
05.12.18
Adolescent boys in Jordan: the state of the evidence
Education and learning
Jordan
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05.12.18 | Education and learning | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Jordan
Adolescent boys in Jordan: the state of the evidence
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Reports
03.12.18
Gendered experiences of adolescents: baseline findings from World Vision's Rupantaram adolescent lifeskills curriculum
Education and learning
Nepal
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03.12.18 | Education and learning | Reports | Nepal
Gendered experiences of adolescents: baseline findings from World Vision's Rupantaram adolescent lifeskills curriculum
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Reports
02.12.18
Supporting girls' education: emerging baseline findings from an evaluation of 'Room to Read' in Nepal
Education and learning
Nepal
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02.12.18 | Education and learning | Reports | Nepal
Supporting girls' education: emerging baseline findings from an evaluation of 'Room to Read' in Nepal
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Policy briefs and policy notes
24.07.18
Adolescents with disabilities: enhancing resilience and delivering inclusive development
Education and learning
Bangladesh | Ethiopia
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24.07.18 | Education and learning | Policy briefs and policy notes | Bangladesh
Adolescents with disabilities: enhancing resilience and delivering inclusive development
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Evidence reviews and evidence digests
21.12.17
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: a synopsis of the evidence
Education and learning
Nepal
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21.12.17 | Education and learning | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Nepal
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: a synopsis of the evidence
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
21.12.17
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence on programme effectiveness
Education and learning
Nepal
Read more
21.12.17 | Education and learning | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Nepal
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence on programme effectiveness
Read more
Evidence reviews and evidence digests
21.12.17
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence
Education and learning
Nepal
Read more
21.12.17 | Education and learning | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Nepal
Adolescent girls' capabilities in Nepal: the state of the evidence
Read more
Reports
10.10.17
Exploring Nepali adolescents' gendered experiences and perspectives
Education and learning
Nepal
Read more
10.10.17 | Education and learning | Reports | Nepal
Exploring Nepali adolescents' gendered experiences and perspectives
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Evidence reviews and evidence digests
05.10.17
Adolescent girls in Jordan: the state of the evidence
Education and learning
Jordan
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05.10.17 | Education and learning | Evidence reviews and evidence digests | Jordan
Adolescent girls in Jordan: the state of the evidence
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Method tools and guides
02.08.17
Adolescent perspectives on services and programmes in conflict affected contexts
Education and learning
Jordan | Lebanon
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02.08.17 | Education and learning | Method tools and guides | Jordan
Adolescent perspectives on services and programmes in conflict affected contexts
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